Articles

Newsletter

Great News! PACI is proud to share articles written by one of our board members, Dr. Silvana Martino:

Breast Cancer Advisor, July 2014 

Breast Cancer Advisor, June 2014 

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Dr. Silvana Martino D. O., FACOI is the Director of Breast Cancer Research and Education for The Angeles Clinic Foundation. She is board certified in internal medicine and medical oncology. Dr. Martino has specialized in the treatment and research of breast cancer for over three decades. She is a nationally recognized leader in the field of breast cancer. Her body of work has included research in breast cancer prevention, early breast cancer and metastatic disease. Dr. Martino has conducted and coordinated large national and international studies which have resulted in changing the standard of care worldwide.

   

Staging of Cancer

Staging of Cancer

C. Kropcho MD Fellow Breast Oncology John Wayne Cancer Institute
Graphics Support: by Ken Baas at John Wayne Cancer Institute


The goal of this article is to explain what cancer staging is, and why it is important.

In cancer the body's cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cells may invade nearby tissues. They may also spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.
When a man or woman is diagnosed with cancer, many fears and questions will come to mind. This is normal! Do not be afraid to ask questions or to voice your concerns. The first questions you may ask are “What do I need to do now? What is the next step? When should all these steps take place?” You will want to know the best treatment for your cancer.
What many patients do not know is that their treatment will vary greatly, depending on the type of cancer, and on the extent, or stage, of the disease.

Read more: Staging of Cancer

   

Staging of Breast Cancer

The purpose of this article is to help explain what is involved in the staging process, what types of procedures and tests you might need as part of staging, and what this means to you, as a patient.
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the second leading cause of cancer mortality among women (1). In cancer the body's cells become abnormal and divide without control. Cancer cells may invade nearby tissues. And they may spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body. When a man or woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, many fears and questions will come to mind. They will want to know the best treatment. What many do not know is that their treatment will vary greatly, depending on the type of breast cancer, and on the extent, or stage, of the disease.

What is staging?
Staging is a term or descriptor used to describe the extent of cancer spread. Cancer staging is based on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, whether lymph nodes are involved, and whether the cancer has spread beyond the breast. Depending on the size of the tumor, the involvement of lymph nodes with cancer, and whether or not cancer has spread to distant areas such as the lung, liver or bones, will determine what stage of cancer you have.

Read more: Staging of Breast Cancer

   

Lung Cancer

It is anticipated that there will be about one quarter million new lung cancer cases and over 150,000 lung cancer deaths in the United States during 2007. For both men and women, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death.

Who Is At Risk?

- Smokers : Tobacco use is the most important risk factor (cigarette, cigar, and pipe – none are safe).
- Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Even secondhand tobacco smoke has been shown scientifically to be a cause of lung cancer.
- Air pollution: Other Environmental Causes of Lung Cancer While of minor importance compared to tobacco smoke, environmental carcinogens such as asbestos, radon, tar and soot, arsenic, chromium, and nickel account for about 10% of lung cancers. In many cases, if exposure to one of these is combined with exposure to tobacco smoke, the cancer risk is higher than either exposure would by itself. The most recent scientific studies appear to substantiate an increased risk of lung cancer as one's exposure to air pollution increases.

Prevention:

  • Avoid Smoking
  • One's risk of lung cancer is significantly reduced by never smoking.
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Stopping smoking for a prolonged period also reduces the risk of lung cancer.
  • Beta Carotene
  • Smoking and taking significant amounts of beta carotene at the same time is even worse than just smoking.
  • Radon Exposure

Read more: Lung Cancer